Why India-based AIF needs to register with IRS – Understand Tax Implications, Legalities & Registration Process

Alternative Investment Funds (AIFs) with a base in India have grown significantly in popularity in recent years, offering investors a fresh means of diversifying their assets and gaining access to new investment opportunities. However, given the popularity of this investment vehicle, AIFS must understand the related legal and tax implications. Registration with the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) in the United States is one such requirement.

Investing in India-based Alternative Investment Funds (AIFs) has become increasingly popular among US investors. Still, legal adherence and tax implications can be challenging.  AIFs are gaining popularity as an alternate investment option in India. The United States is one of the most significant marketplaces for alternative investments, and many of these funds get a global market. This blog will explore why India-based AIFs need to register with the IRS and the steps involved in the registration process.

Legal sense on AIF in India                    

Alternative Investment Funds (AIFs) have grown in popularity in India due to their flexibility and greater returns compared to traditional investing options. Under the SEBI (Alternative Investment Funds) Regulations, 2012, the Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI) oversees the regulation of Alternative Investment Funds (AIFs) in India. The legislation defines AIFs as privately collective investment institutions jointly managed and regulated by a trustee or manager. However, investors should be aware of India’s legal system that oversees AIFs. AIFs must ensure that their investors’ interests are protected and that their investments are managed fairly and openly as part of their investor protection obligations. This requires appropriate policies in place for handling conflicts of interest and ensuring appropriate policies to ensure that all investors are fairly treated.

AIFs must abide by SEBI regulations, including disclosure obligations and investor protection measures, as they are governed by the Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI). AIFs must also adhere to Indian tax regulations and are subject to them. To ensure compliance with all relevant rules and regulations, it is advised that investors seek legal counsel before investing in an AIF.

Overall, India’s legal system offers a safe environment for investing in AIFs. The legal framework for AIFs in India provides a balanced approach to regulating these investment vehicles, ensuring their proper formation and operation while also protecting the interests of investors. AIFs must abide by several legal criteria, including disclosure, investor protection, and anti-money laundering.

Types of AIF Funds

Indian Securities and Board Exchanges has classified the AIF funds into 3 major categories, which are represented below in detail:

Category I

This category involves funds to be invested in Startups, SMEs, and new businesses that may have the capability to attain high growth. The category I fund offers a base to the startup by offering them funds in the form of capital.

  • Venture Capital Fund

Venture Capital Fund, is a type of private equity financing provided by venture capital firms or funds to startups and early-stage businesses that exhibit high growth potential. The goal of venture capital firms is to invest in promising companies, help them grow, and eventually realize a significant return on their investment through a successful exit, such as an initial public offering (IPO) or a merger or acquisition. High Net Worth Investors (HNIs) prefer to invest in VCFs when looking for high-risk/high-return investment opportunities.

  • Infrastructure Fund

Infrastructure funds are offered to invest in the development of public assets which can be rails, bridges, and airports. Since the infrastructure sector has high entry barriers and little competition, investors that are confident in the future of infrastructure development can invest in the fund.

  • Angel Fund

Similar to Venture Capital, this fund has been used by angel investors who are willing to invest in budding startups for their development, guiding the startup in the right direction, and to the firms who generally do not get funds through venture capital funds, due to growing uncertainty.

  • Social Venture Fund

Even though it is a charitable investment, one can still expect returns because the businesses will continue to produce money. The Social Venture Fund (SVF), which often invests in companies that have a strong social conscience and aim to bring about significant change in society, was created as a result of socially responsible investing.

Category II

This category includes funds that invest in a variety of debt and equity instruments. All funds that SEBI does not categorize under categories I or III come under category II. The government does not offer any incentives or concessions for investing in these funds.

  • Private Equity Fund

PE funds are invested in unlisted private companies and take ownership in their firm  Unlisted private enterprises seek PE funds because they cannot access cash through the issue of equity or debt instruments. The normal investment period for a PE fund is 4 to 7 years. The company expects to be able to exit the investment with a healthy profit after 7 years.

  • Debt Fund

High-return debt securities with high risk are typically released by businesses with poor credit. As a result, debt fund investors may want to consider investing in companies that have strong development potential and great corporate policies but are experiencing cash shortages. According to SEBI regulations, because Alternative Investment Fund is a privately pooled investment option, the capital invested in Debt Fund cannot be used to provide loans.

  • Funds of Fund

A variety of Alternative Investment Funds are combined to create this fund. Instead of creating its portfolio or selecting a particular sector to invest in, the fund’s investment strategy is to invest in a portfolio of other AIFs.

Category III    

This category includes investment which gives short-term returns. The government does not specifically offer any incentives or concessions for investing in these funds.

  • Hedge Fund

To achieve high returns, a hedge fund collects money from qualified and institutional investors and makes investments in both domestic and foreign markets. Compared to other financial investment instruments, hedge funds are costly. Hedge funds typically take 20% of the earnings made as a fee and charge 2% for asset management.

  • Private Investment in Public Equity Fund

 Purchasing shares of publicly traded stock at a discount is referred to as a private investment in public equity. As a result, the investor can buy a piece of the firm, and the company selling the stake gains funding to expand.

SEBI Alternative Investment Fund Amendments Regulations, 2023  

On January 9, 2023, SEBI AIF brought up Amendment Regulations, which are presented below in detail:

  • Category I

Alternative Investment Funds are allowed to use credit default swaps and other forms of hedging within the terms that may sometimes be set by the Board.

  • Category II

Alternative Investment Funds are allowed to purchase or sell credit default swaps under the terms that may sometimes be specified by the Board.

  • Category III

Alternative Investment Funds are permitted to purchase or sell credit default swaps under the terms that may sometimes be specified by the Board on a timely basis.                                                                                    

What happens if an AIF gets money from a US investor, and what are its regulatory implications? 

When an American investor contributes money to an Alternative Investment Fund (AIF) in India, there may be significant regulatory implications for both the fund and the investor. The AIF must register with the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) and submit information about the fund and its investors to ensure compliance with US tax laws. The fund must also adhere to its tax reporting duties in the US and India.

The Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI), which is in charge of regulating AIFs in India under Regulation 2(1)(b), also has regulations that the fund must follow. This involves being forced to abide by disclosure laws and investor safety precautions and ensuring the fund is appropriately managed, and investor assets are protected.

An AIF could be liable for penalties, fines, or even legal action if it doesn’t follow regulations or breaks tax laws. The US investor may be subject to penalties or fines if they invest in an AIF that does not comply with the regulatory requirements.

The registration process for AIF in the US with the Secretary of State and IRS        

An Alternative Investment Fund (AIF) must be certified by both the Secretary of State (SOS) and the Internal Revenue Service to be registered in the US (IRS). Here is a step-by-step process:

  • Select a better state: The AIF must choose the state where it wants to register and abide by its laws.
  • Register with the Secretary of State: The AIF must file its formation documents with the SOS in the state where it is registered. This typically includes articles of incorporation and any necessary agreements.
  • Obtain Employer Identification Number: To identify the fund for tax purposes, the AIF must apply for an Employer Identification Number (EIN) or Federal Employer Identification Number from the IRS, which has been assigned by the Internal Revenue Service Authority of India. The EIN enables entities to get themselves verified and operate in the country of the US.
  • Fill out Form D: To comply with the Securities Act of 1933, the AIF must submit Form D to the SEC. As per the offering of Indian Rules and Regulations, Form D is an SEC filing form, which has been used to fill the notice of an exempt provision of securities under the Regulations D of the Securities and Exchange Commission of the US. Information on the fund and its securities offerings is provided using Form D.
  • IRS registration: The AIF must file all required tax documents and register with the IRS as a foreign investment company.
  • Continuous compliance: The AIF shall continue to be registered with the SOS and the IRS and continue to adhere to all ongoing reporting requirements.

To ensure compliance with all regulatory standards and reduce the danger of fines or penalties, it is crucial to seek competent guidance. A knowledgeable advisor can advise on the precise requirements for your AIF, as the process can be complex.

Tax implications for such US investors from both the Indian tax act and the US fed tax

There may be tax implications for US investors that contribute to an Alternative Investment Fund (AIF) in India under both Indian and US Federal Tax Code regulations. A few tax implications for US investors are provided below:

  • Indian tax laws: AIFs must pay taxes on their capital gains and income under the Indian Income Tax Act. On their portion of the AIF’s capital gains and income in India, US investors may also be taxed.
  • US Federal Tax Code: According to the US Federal Tax Code, US investors are required to report all of their income that they may have obtained from an AIF in India. On their portion of the AIF’s revenue, US investors might additionally be required to pay a withholding tax.
  • Avoiding Double Taxation: The US and India have a tax agreement in a place called the US-India Income Tax Treaty. The treaty outlines the procedures for taxing income in each nation and calls for eliminating or reducing double taxation.


In conclusion, AIFs with headquarters in India must apply for registration with the IRS to guarantee compliance with US tax laws and give US investors assurance. Although the DTAA offers protection from such taxation, US investors in such AIFs may be liable to double taxation. To comprehend their tax responsibilities and guarantee compliance with both Indian and US tax regulations, it is advised for US investors to seek the assistance of a tax professional.